Part I. 2. Buying, borrowing, reading and reviewing

Several documents concerned with Hooke’s bibliophilia have survived, and these allow us to assemble a more complete and nuanced picture of Hooke as a bookman than we can for any of his contemporaries. The ultimate aim of this website is to present these resources in an easily-accessible and cross-referenced form, for the benefit of bibliographers and historians of science, architecture, and intellectual culture.

The key source is the printed posthumous auction catalogue of Hooke’s library, published as the Bibliotheca Hookiana (London, 1703).1There have been two facsimile editions: in H. A. Feisenberger, ed., Sale Catalogues of Libraries of Eminent Persons, vol. 11, Scientists (London: Mansell, 1975), pp. 57-116; and as an appendix to Leona Rostenberg, The Library of Robert Hooke [hereafter LRH] (Santa Monica, CA: Modoc Press, 1989). There are six known extant copies of the 1703 catalogue: two in the British Library, and one each at Durham University, the National Library of Ireland, the University of California Los Angeles, and the Grolier Club Library; see the reference page for further details on these copies. This lists 2240 lots, representing c. 2500 titles. However, other significant sources are available. Hooke kept a private diary for several periods in his life, and this diary (he called it his ‘memoranda’) survives in varying densities for the years 1672-83 in a large manuscript folio, and then for November 1688 to March 1690, and December 1692 to August 1693 in small pocket books, no longer extant in a complete run.2Hooke’s memoranda have been edited in: Henry W. Robinson and Walter Adams, eds., The Diary of Robert Hooke, M.A., M.D., F.R.S., 1672-1680 (London: Taylor and Francis, 1935), covering August 1672 to December 1680; R. T. Gunther, ed., Early Science in Oxford, vol. 10, The Life and Work of Robert Hooke (Oxford: printed for the author, 1935), covering November 1688 to March 1690 and December 1692 to August 1693; Felicity Henderson, ‘Unpublished Material from the Memorandum Book of Robert Hooke, Guildhall Library MS 1758’, Notes and Records of the Royal Society 61 (2007), pp. 129-75, covering March to July 1672 and January 1681 to May 1683. These memoranda are rich if abbreviated records of Hooke’s daily movements, and they contain a great deal of information concerning buying, borrowing, reading, writing, and publishing books. Another source for Hooke and his books is an early catalogue of his library, on several small manuscript leaves bound into MS Sloane 949 in the British Library. This catalogue lists just under five hundred books from Hooke’s library and seems to have been drawn up by Hooke in or around 1675. There are significant discrepancies between the 1675 and 1703 lists, for not all the 1675 books survived through into the Bibliotheca Hookiana. (Some further remarks on this source will be presented below.) Other scraps of information can be gleaned from contemporary letters and catalogues, other fragments among Hooke’s surviving manuscripts, references in Hooke’s works, and manuscript information noted down on Hooke’s books themselves, over ninety of which have been traced today, with many further possibilities. Hooke reviewed books for the Royal Society’s journal, the Philosophical Transactions, he edited his own interim Philosophical Collections while the Transactions was in abeyance. He was also involved with the Society’s own library, largely acquired by gift from the Duke of Norfolk, of which a printed catalogue, the Bibliotheca Norfolciana, was published in 1681. This was the library of the Earls of Arundel, and when Norfolk donated it, the books were divided between the Royal Society and the College of Arms; William Dugdale corresponded with Hooke about the split of the stock.3Hooke’s copy of Bibliotheca Norfolciana has survived and is listed in the Robert Hooke’s Books Database under id ‘extra_BH_23’ [for books listed in the database, hereafter only their id numbers will be listed, following the format auct_BH_x for those in the Bibliotheca Hookiana, and extra_BH_x for other extant books]. William Hamper, The Life, Diary, and Correspondence of Sir William Dugdale, Knight, sometime Garter Principal King of Arms (London: Harding, Lepard, and Co. 1827), p. 420, Letter CLXIX; Jan Broadway, William Dugdale ([Gloucester]: Xmera Ltd, 2011), pp. 183-84; Linda Levy Peck, ‘Uncovering the Arundel Library at the Royal Society: Changing Meanings of Science and the Fate of the Norfolk Donation’, Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 52 (1998), pp. 3-24. On the Royal Society library in the seventeenth century, see M. B. Hall, The Library and Archives of the Royal Society 1660-1990 (London: The Royal Society, 1992), pp. 2-6. Hooke also had dealings with libraries further afield: in 1678 he proposed to the Bodleian Library in Oxford, for instance, a swap of books, the Royal Society sending the Bodleian unwanted books on the humanities, and the Bodleian exchanging for them unwanted books on the sciences.4Bodleian Library, MS Smith 45, fol. 105r-v, letter of Hooke to Edward Bernard, 7 April 1678. (Fortunately, the offer was not taken up.)

Each of these sources presents a different picture of Hooke’s interactions with the world of printed books. In combination, they give a very rich and detailed account of his reading and collecting over a span of almost thirty years.
 

 i. Browsing and buying

Hooke’s acquisition of books has been studied in detail by Rostenberg, who trawled Hooke’s diary for its frequent mentions of books and bookmen.5LRH, chapters 2-4 (booksellers), ch. 5 (second-hand market), ch. 6 (auctions), ch. 7 (purchase of foreign books). Hooke acquired books first-hand and second-hand, and he frequently used as intermediaries foreign importing booksellers in London, especially Huguenots, or London friends with overseas contacts. He was particularly close to John Martyn, printer to the Royal Society, and to Moses Pitt, the entrepreneurial publisher who was broken by his own English Atlas project, a project in which Hooke himself was heavily involved.6On Martyn, whose activities did not always please the Royal Society, see Rhodri Lewis, ‘The publication of John Wilkins’s Essay (1668): some contextual considerations’, Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 56 (2002), pp. 133-46; and on the English Atlas project, see E. G. R. Taylor, ‘“The English Atlas” of Moses Pitt, 1680-83’, Geographical Journal 95 (1940), pp. 292-99. The diary shows that Hooke visited booksellers across London as his business took him from one building project to another: thus his work on Bedlam Hospital gave him an excellent excuse to make purchases in Moorfields (see fig. 1), and his walk from that part of the City across to Holborn or the Strand took him along Little Britain where Moses Pitt, William Cooper, Nathanael Hooke, Christopher Hussey, Robert Littlebury and Robert Scott all had premises in the 1670s and 1680s. Hooke mentions purchases from all these booksellers in his diary. Sometimes his visits resulted in a note about having seen a new or interesting volume: on Christmas Eve in 1675 he noted ‘Calld at Martins, Saw a small Roma Subterranea’. These notes may occasionally have been for the benefit of friends or colleagues, since Hooke does not always return to purchase these volumes. More frequently though, he browsed with intent, and made purchases. Sometimes he had a particular object in view, as for example in February 1689 when he ‘Cald at Crooks & brown & all bookshops for Portug[uese] gramer’, apparently without success.7See memoranda entry for 11 February 1689 (where Gunther incorrectly printed ‘Crouch’ for ‘Crooks’). William Crook and Daniel Brown both had shops ‘without Temple-Bar’. On other occasions, Hooke seems merely to have bought titles that took his fancy. This could include some rather unusual assemblages: for instance, one Saturday in March 1678 he ‘bought at a shop in holburne, Semedos China 3sh, . . . Dumbman of Lambhith, 3 months in Holland, Gratarollus directions for health, sea accidence, Lucana de carunculis, tables and Chorography of Clay for 6d.’8Alvaro Semedo, The History of that Great and Renowned Monarchy of China (London, 1655), auct_BH_1797; The Miraculous Recovery of a Dumb Man at Lambeth (London, 1676); Three Moneths Observations of the Low-Countreyes; especially Holland (London, 1652); Guglielmo Gratarolo, A Direction for the Health of Magistrates and Studentes (London, 1574); probably John Smith, An Accidence for the Sea (London, 1636); Andreas Lucana, Methodus cognoscendi extirpandique excrescentes in vesicae collo carunculas (Lisbon, 1560); probably Thomas Clay, Briefe, Easie, and Necessary Tables, for the Valuation of Leases, Annuities, and Purchases . . . Together with a chorologicall discourse of the well ordering, disposing, and gouerning of an honorable estate or reuennue (London, 1622). Of these, Alvaro Semedo’s history of China is seemingly the only title that appears in the Bibliotheca Hookiana; Andreas Lucana’s Methodus cognoscendi extirpandique excrescentes in vesicae collo carunculas (Lisbon, 1560) is now very rare, with only three copies listed on Worldcat. Hooke’s good relationships with booksellers meant that he often named the source of his purchases – the example just cited is one of the rarer occasions when the shop is left unidentified. Sometimes there was no shop – in March 1693 Hooke noted ‘I saw near 100 of Mr Boyles high Dutch Chymicall books ly exposed in moor feilds on the railes. also Raungs [i.e. Rahn’s] or Dr Pells Algebra in high Dutch’. As an engraving from circa 1704 shows, the railing fence (see fig. 1a) at the front of Bedlam Hospital was one such place where open-air bookselling took place at Moorfields, but there may have been others.9Memoranda entry for 21 March 1693; A New Prospect of ye North Side of ye City of London with New Bedlam & Moore-Fields (James Walker del.; Jos. Nutting sculp.; printed and sold by Henry Overton). Hooke returned the following day and bought Rahn’s Algebra and ‘2 other Dutch chymick books’. Hooke also bought books from his hard-up friend John Aubrey, although this may have been a tactful alternative to lending Aubrey money rather than because Hooke particularly wanted the books.10For his purchases from Aubrey, see Hooke’s memoranda for 6 July 1674. Hooke, for instance, purchased an especially fine set of the celebrated Eton Chrysostom from Aubrey, for the substantial sum of £4 10s, and yet it is hard to imagine that Hooke, who had only a very slight interest in patristic theology, hankered after this text.11See Robinson and Adams, eds., Diary, p. 135; and Kate Bennett, ‘John Aubrey and the Printed Book’, Huntington Library Quarterly 76 (2013), pp. 393-411, at p. 402.

From 1676 Hooke keenly attended auctions, even though he complained that this new method of sale was driving up prices. The first English auction was held on 31 October of that year, and Hooke noted it in his memoranda, with the comment that the sale had raised twice the valuation of the stock by the booksellers, immediate proof to English entrepreneurs of the profitability of auctions.12Memoranda, 31 October 1676, 19 June 1693. Hooke not only entered notes on many auctions into his memoranda, but he wrote out a list of some fifty-six auctions held between August 1686 and August of 1689, a valuable source for bibliographers.13MS Sloane 1039, fols. 177r-178r; reprinted in Gunter, ed., Early Science in Oxford, vol. 10, pp. 66-7. We can observe Hooke in action in a few auctions too, where the auctioneer’s or ‘hammer copy’ of the catalogue has survived, where prices and names of the successful bidders are recorded – for instance Hooke successfully bid for over thirty books at the auction of the library of Richard Smith, Secondary of the Poulter Compter, in 1682 (see Appendix A).14Bibliotheca Smithiana, sive, Catalogus librorum in quavis facultate insigniorum, quos in usum suum & bibliothecae ornamentum multo . . . sibi comparavit, vir clarissimus doctissimusq D. Richardus Smith, Londinensis : horum auctio habebitur Londini, in area vulgo dicta Great St. Bartholomews Close, in Angulum ejusdem Septentrionalem, Maii die 15. 1682 / per Richardum Chiswel (London, 1682); ESTC, citation no. R40617, available online via Early English Books Online [hereafter EEBO]. There are copies of the hammer catalogue at British Library, Mic.A.1343 (from Lord Crawford’s copy), and an early copy taken from this and entered into Bodleian, Vet. A3. d.187. For these catalogues see T. A. Birrell, ‘Books and Buyers in Seventeenth-Century English Auction Sales’, in R. Myers, M. Harris, and G. Mandelbrote, eds, Under the Hammer: Book Auctions since the Seventeenth Century (New Castle, DE., 2001), pp. 51-64. Hooke’s purchases are listed in Appendix II of Henderson and Poole, ‘The Library Lists of Francis Lodwick’. He bought more modestly at the sale of the library of Sir Edward Bysshe, auctioned in November 1679.15See Bibliotheca Bissaeana ([London, 1679]); an annotated copy is located in the Cambridge University Library (Syn.5.67.2) and is available via EEBO. At the Bysshe sale, Hooke apparently bought three lots, among which was a two-volume folio edition of Roma Subterranea Novissima (Rome, 1651), for which Hooke paid £3.16See auct_BH_48. The other titles purchased by Hooke were: Claude Saumaise, Epistolarum liber primus. Accedunt, de laudibus et vita auctoris prolegomena, accurante A. Clementio (Leiden, 1656); and a sammelband of five quartos: Levinus Warner, Compendium historicum eorum quae Muhammedani de Christo et praecipuis aliquot religionis Christianae capitibus tradiderunt (Leiden, 1643), see auct_BH_348; Justus Asterius, Examen Comitiorum Ratisbonensium, sive disquisitio politica de nupera electione novissimi regis Romanorum (Hanover, 1637); Germanorum populi votum pro pace (1643); Petrus Gassendi, Mercurius in sole visus, et Venus invisa Parisiis anno 1631 (Paris, 1632); and Anacreontis, lyricorum poetarum festivissimi, quæ restant carmina, cum interpretatione Eilhardi Lubini (Rostock, 1583). This, incidentally, is the very text Hooke had spotted at John Martyn’s on Christmas Eve of 1675.

Hooke’s papers in the Sloane collection also include lists of auction catalogues dated from 30 August 1686 to 5 August 1689. In the same collection we find evidence for Hooke’s use of these printed auction catalogues. He has written out several pages of book titles, obviously taken from catalogues, presumably shopping lists to take to auctions. Each title is preceded by a lot number, and the works are divided into sizes and categories echoing those found in printed catalogues: ‘miscel fol’, ‘mathematical folio’, ‘Hispanici fol’, and so on. He also took commissions for friends: fol. 147r of MS Sloane 1039 includes a section headed ‘For SJL’, almost certainly his and John Aubrey’s friend Sir James Long FRS of Wiltshire.17MS Sloane 1039, fols. 177-178 (auction catalogues) and fols. 143-50, 151 (shopping lists). On the evidence of book imprint dates, the latter date from the late 1680s and early 1690s. For further discussion of these lists, most of which have now been matched to specific auction catalogues, see Part II and Appendix C.
 

 ii. Gifts and presentation copies

Hooke acquired a number of books as gifts or presentation copies, and he also gave out copies of his own publications.18On this topic see also Part II, below. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish in the memoranda between books given to Hooke for his own collection, and those intended for the Royal Society’s library. Theoretically, one might assume that gifts from Royal Society Fellows were probably intended for Hooke’s own collection, as the Fellows could donate to the Society’s library in person at meetings if they wished to do so. In practice, the situation is far from clear. For example, following a visit to John Tillotson, Dean of Canterbury, Hooke wrote ‘the Dean gave me Dr Willis his book, Petrifyd wood, Turtles pizzell, Dolphins head, returnd Beslers 2 books and Museum Wormianum’.19There are two books listed in the BH by Basilius Besler: auct_BH_158 and auct_BH_159; Museum Wormianum is auct_BH_139. See memoranda entry for 8 October 1673. Presumably the specimens were intended for the Royal Society’s Repository; it is unclear whether Thomas Willis’s book, or indeed the works by Basilius Besler and Ole Worm, were also gifts or returns to the Society’s collections. As a side-note, this exchange is also useful in that it demonstrates the extent to which the memoranda shows gifts of books in association with gifts of artefacts.

The situation with Hooke’s own gifts of books is much clearer. His memoranda entry for 23 September 1676 is typical in this respect: ‘Dined with Mr. Boyle gave him Guilt Lampas. He gave me his new book’. The presentation of gilt or plain copies was significant: in January 1674 Hooke received from publisher John Martyn ‘6 guilt 6 plain’ copies of his An Attempt to Prove the Motion of the Earth (London, 1674), the first of his Cutlerian lectures to be published. Over the following days he gave plain copies to Abraham Hill, Edmund Wild, Walter Pope, all Fellows of the Royal Society, and John Godfrey, Clerk of the Mercers’ Company; gilt copies went to the President of the Royal Society, William Brouncker, Hooke’s benefactor Sir John Cutler, Robert Boyle, and Sir George Ent, President of the Royal College of Physicians.20See memoranda entries for 21, 22 and 31 March, and 3 April 1674. The giving of a presentation copy as a mark of distinction could also occur some time after the publication of a volume, as for example when Hooke gave a city official a copy of his most famous (and impressive) work, Micrographia, in February 1675. Micrographia had been published ten years earlier, in 1665, but Hooke’s memoranda show that he had bought this particular copy from the bookseller John Martyn only a few days previously.21See memoranda entries for 29 January, and 6 and 12 February 1675. Extant presentation copies of Micrographia are listed in Part II, below.
 

iii. Borrowing and lending

We have already mentioned the number of private libraries owned by Hooke’s immediate neighbours and close associates; it would have been strange had he not borrowed books from friends and acquaintances. The memoranda provide ample evidence for this. Hooke borrowed regularly from his closest Royal Society colleagues, including Robert Boyle, Christopher Wren, Jonathan Goddard, John Collins, Theodore Haak and Henry Oldenburg. He also made use of his extensive network of associates outside the Society. Thus in March 1673, seemingly in the company of his friend Theodore Haak FRS, Hooke borrowed a ‘Description of Ceylon’ from the merchant and Alderman Charles Chamberlain (1640-1704/5). Chamberlain had a particular interest in the East Indies (presumably related to his mercantile activities) and in March 1689 Hooke returned to him Henry Lord’s A Display of Two Forraigne Sects in the East Indies vizt: the Sect of the Banians . . . and the Sect of the Persees (London, 1630) and a ‘Bannian Manuscript’. The ‘Description of Ceylon’ was probably Philippus Baldaeus’s Beschryving van het machtige eyland Ceylon (Amsterdam, 1672); Theodore Haak’s presence is significant because he was able to read and translate from Dutch, a language with which Hooke at this time was only beginning to grapple.22For Baldaeus, see auct_BH_2554. See memoranda entries for 17 March 1673 and 20 March 1689; for Hooke’s translations from Dutch see Felicity Henderson, ‘Making “The Good Old Man” Speak English: The Reception of Antoni van Leeuwenhoek’s Letters at the Royal Society, 1673-1723’ in Harold J. Cook and Sven Dupré (eds.), Translating Knowledge in the Early Modern Low Countries (Zurich and Münster, 2012), pp. 243-68 (esp. pp. 247-8). Finally, Hooke also borrowed books from booksellers themselves, a habit that must have been rather annoying if the volumes were stock rather than part of the vendors’ personal collections.

While Hooke may not, like Samuel Pepys, have consciously used his collection in an attempt to impress his friends and visitors, nevertheless a range of people had access to his books. This is clearly demonstrated by his memoranda entries relating to his books, and by several lists of books lent which have been inscribed in the earlier memoranda manuscript.23London Metropolitan Archives CLC/495/MS01758. The loans recorded in the lists have sometimes also been recorded in the main body of the memoranda, but presumably the lists were a simpler way to keep track of loans, and more importantly, returns. Some titles feature in more than one of these transactions. For example, Hooke’s memoranda show that he bought Thomas Hobbes’s translation of Thucydides, Eight Bookes of the Peloponnesian Warre (London, 1629), on 27 November 1672 from ‘Brook’ (probably the bookseller Nathaniel Brookes) for 9 shillings. He did not mention reading the volume himself, but on 18 January 1673 he lent it to his friend Theodore Haak, and then on 14 November that year he lent it to another close friend, John Godfrey. A further, undated, note records that he lent Hobbes’s Thucydides to Abraham Hill, secretary of the Royal Society. Hill duly returned the volume, and it appears in the Bibliotheca Hookiana.24Thucydides is listed in the BH, see auct_BH_1842. Memoranda entries for 27 November 1672, 18 January 1673, 14 November 1673; LMA CLC/495/MS01758 fol. 1r; Bib. Hook. p. 39 no. 59. Most of these transactions merely confirm the access Hooke’s circle of close friends had to his books (and vice versa), but occasionally they shed light on Hooke’s social worlds in different ways. Another note records ‘Lent Dr Tison Mr Hautons freind Febru[ary] 11 the french book of ye An[a]tomy of 5 animalls’.25LMA CLC/495/MS01758, fol. 132r. This was the loan in February 1679 of Description anatomique d’un caméleon, d’un castor, d’un dromadaire, d’un ours, et d’une gazelle (Paris, 1669) to Dr Edward Tyson. Though he is recorded here as the friend of John Houghton FRS he would soon become one of Hooke’s circle of intimates: he was elected FRS in December 1679 on Hooke’s proposal. Women occasionally appear as borrowers of books. Hooke noted on 20 December 1678 that he dined with Sir Christopher Wren and his wife, and ‘promisd Lady Wren, Mahomets booke’ (that is, the Quran, of which Hooke owned a manuscript). Hooke naturally also supplied his niece and housekeeper Grace with reading matter. In June 1682 he lent her several titles from his presumably not-very-extensive collection of books that might have been considered suitable for female consumption: these included Antoine de Courtin, The Rules of Civility (London, 1671); Walter Montagu, The Accomplish’d Woman (London, 1656); Hannah Woolley, The Gentlewoman’s Companion (London, 1675); and Johann Amos Comenius, Orbis Sensualium Pictus (London, 1659).26LMA CLC/495/MS01758, unnumbered folio. There are also two translations of the Quran by Andre du Ryer listed in the BH, see auct_BH_1495 and auct_BH_2126. See also auct_BH_2570, auct_BH_2462, auct_BH_2209, and auct_BH_1142.
 

 iv. Reading and reviewing

Hooke’s close association with the Royal Society as Curator of Experiments, Secretary and member of Council, and de-facto caretaker (as inhabitant of Gresham College) means that in various areas of his life it is difficult to separate official from private activities. This is certainly the case in terms of his reading, and to a lesser extent his book-buying (in that he fairly obviously keeps an eye out for books in which the Society might be interested for their collections).27See, for example, the memoranda entry for 12 October 1672: ‘Bought of Mr Martin for Royal Society, Guericke Experimenta nova Magdeburgica 10sh, Malpighii lib. De Ovo 2sh, Langeloti Epistola 6d, Morhofi Epistola 10d.’ The minutes of the Royal Society meeting on 6 November 1672 record that ‘Mr Hook produced two Books, the one entituled Ottonis Gerici Experimenta Magdeburgica de Vacuo Spatio &c. the other of Dr Morhofij Epistola de Sypho vitreo per certum humanae vocis sonum rupto; moving, that they might be bought by the Society for their Library; which the Company consented to’ (Royal Society Archives JBO/4/264). Thus the records of the Society itself are also a good source for Hooke’s bibliographical activities. The fellowship, or at least a sub-section of it, placed a good deal of importance on printed books as a source of information, and discussion at the weekly meetings often involved verbal references to authors and their works. So, for example, during a discussion in 1680 about some experiments which had been made with snake-stones Hooke remarked that ‘he had found the place in Mons. Tavernier’s voyage, where he speaks of this kind of snake-stone’.28Birch, History, vol. IV, p. 39 (meeting of 27 May 1680). In this case it seems likely that Edward Tyson’s experiments had prompted Hooke to consult Tavernier’s book, which he had bought in February 1678.29Jean Baptiste Tavernier’s book is listed in the BH, see auct_BH_1830. Memoranda, 23 February 1678.

The Society regularly received printed books as well as manuscript material for consideration, and, after its foundation in 1665, potentially for notice in Henry Oldenburg’s Philosophical Transactions, which also functioned as an early reviewing journal. These books were passed to fellows with expertise in the field for review, and Hooke was occasionally called upon. These reports should not be considered synonymous with a modern peer-review system – rather, they were designed primarily to give Fellows an idea of a book’s contents. Hooke did sometimes object to the books he read for the Society: as for example when he contradicted the findings set out by Johann Daniel Major in his Consideratio ferri radiantis (Schleswig, 1679).30Birch, History, vol. IV, p. 110 (meeting of 7 Dec 1681). Descriptions of books were also published anonymously in the Philosophical Transactions. Books sent to the Society should always, of course, have been returned to its growing library collection – but sporadic calls from the Society’s Council for Hooke and other fellows to return books they had borrowed suggest that volumes were easily dispersed and no doubt review copies were part of this trend. Hooke may have felt somewhat proprietorial about the Society’s collections: in April 1674 he noted ‘I saw at Oldenb[urg’s] 3 bookes præsented to ye RS. Borellj or Hugeli was one. history of Island a 2o. and ye 3d was [   ]’.31Memoranda entry for 23 April 1674. Hooke had already forgotten the third title by the time he came to record it. There was not necessarily a clear division between books sent to the Secretaries in their institutional and private capacities; sometimes this was made clear by the fact of multiple copies being sent, or in an accompanying letter, but on other occasions there must have been some genuine doubt as to who should keep the book.

 

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footnotes   [ + ]

1. There have been two facsimile editions: in H. A. Feisenberger, ed., Sale Catalogues of Libraries of Eminent Persons, vol. 11, Scientists (London: Mansell, 1975), pp. 57-116; and as an appendix to Leona Rostenberg, The Library of Robert Hooke [hereafter LRH] (Santa Monica, CA: Modoc Press, 1989). There are six known extant copies of the 1703 catalogue: two in the British Library, and one each at Durham University, the National Library of Ireland, the University of California Los Angeles, and the Grolier Club Library; see the reference page for further details on these copies.
2. Hooke’s memoranda have been edited in: Henry W. Robinson and Walter Adams, eds., The Diary of Robert Hooke, M.A., M.D., F.R.S., 1672-1680 (London: Taylor and Francis, 1935), covering August 1672 to December 1680; R. T. Gunther, ed., Early Science in Oxford, vol. 10, The Life and Work of Robert Hooke (Oxford: printed for the author, 1935), covering November 1688 to March 1690 and December 1692 to August 1693; Felicity Henderson, ‘Unpublished Material from the Memorandum Book of Robert Hooke, Guildhall Library MS 1758’, Notes and Records of the Royal Society 61 (2007), pp. 129-75, covering March to July 1672 and January 1681 to May 1683.
3. Hooke’s copy of Bibliotheca Norfolciana has survived and is listed in the Robert Hooke’s Books Database under id ‘extra_BH_23’ [for books listed in the database, hereafter only their id numbers will be listed, following the format auct_BH_x for those in the Bibliotheca Hookiana, and extra_BH_x for other extant books]. William Hamper, The Life, Diary, and Correspondence of Sir William Dugdale, Knight, sometime Garter Principal King of Arms (London: Harding, Lepard, and Co. 1827), p. 420, Letter CLXIX; Jan Broadway, William Dugdale ([Gloucester]: Xmera Ltd, 2011), pp. 183-84; Linda Levy Peck, ‘Uncovering the Arundel Library at the Royal Society: Changing Meanings of Science and the Fate of the Norfolk Donation’, Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 52 (1998), pp. 3-24. On the Royal Society library in the seventeenth century, see M. B. Hall, The Library and Archives of the Royal Society 1660-1990 (London: The Royal Society, 1992), pp. 2-6.
4. Bodleian Library, MS Smith 45, fol. 105r-v, letter of Hooke to Edward Bernard, 7 April 1678.
5. LRH, chapters 2-4 (booksellers), ch. 5 (second-hand market), ch. 6 (auctions), ch. 7 (purchase of foreign books).
6. On Martyn, whose activities did not always please the Royal Society, see Rhodri Lewis, ‘The publication of John Wilkins’s Essay (1668): some contextual considerations’, Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 56 (2002), pp. 133-46; and on the English Atlas project, see E. G. R. Taylor, ‘“The English Atlas” of Moses Pitt, 1680-83’, Geographical Journal 95 (1940), pp. 292-99.
7. See memoranda entry for 11 February 1689 (where Gunther incorrectly printed ‘Crouch’ for ‘Crooks’).
8. Alvaro Semedo, The History of that Great and Renowned Monarchy of China (London, 1655), auct_BH_1797; The Miraculous Recovery of a Dumb Man at Lambeth (London, 1676); Three Moneths Observations of the Low-Countreyes; especially Holland (London, 1652); Guglielmo Gratarolo, A Direction for the Health of Magistrates and Studentes (London, 1574); probably John Smith, An Accidence for the Sea (London, 1636); Andreas Lucana, Methodus cognoscendi extirpandique excrescentes in vesicae collo carunculas (Lisbon, 1560); probably Thomas Clay, Briefe, Easie, and Necessary Tables, for the Valuation of Leases, Annuities, and Purchases . . . Together with a chorologicall discourse of the well ordering, disposing, and gouerning of an honorable estate or reuennue (London, 1622).
9. Memoranda entry for 21 March 1693; A New Prospect of ye North Side of ye City of London with New Bedlam & Moore-Fields (James Walker del.; Jos. Nutting sculp.; printed and sold by Henry Overton).
10. For his purchases from Aubrey, see Hooke’s memoranda for 6 July 1674.
11. See Robinson and Adams, eds., Diary, p. 135; and Kate Bennett, ‘John Aubrey and the Printed Book’, Huntington Library Quarterly 76 (2013), pp. 393-411, at p. 402.
12. Memoranda, 31 October 1676, 19 June 1693.
13. MS Sloane 1039, fols. 177r-178r; reprinted in Gunter, ed., Early Science in Oxford, vol. 10, pp. 66-7.
14. Bibliotheca Smithiana, sive, Catalogus librorum in quavis facultate insigniorum, quos in usum suum & bibliothecae ornamentum multo . . . sibi comparavit, vir clarissimus doctissimusq D. Richardus Smith, Londinensis : horum auctio habebitur Londini, in area vulgo dicta Great St. Bartholomews Close, in Angulum ejusdem Septentrionalem, Maii die 15. 1682 / per Richardum Chiswel (London, 1682); ESTC, citation no. R40617, available online via Early English Books Online [hereafter EEBO]. There are copies of the hammer catalogue at British Library, Mic.A.1343 (from Lord Crawford’s copy), and an early copy taken from this and entered into Bodleian, Vet. A3. d.187. For these catalogues see T. A. Birrell, ‘Books and Buyers in Seventeenth-Century English Auction Sales’, in R. Myers, M. Harris, and G. Mandelbrote, eds, Under the Hammer: Book Auctions since the Seventeenth Century (New Castle, DE., 2001), pp. 51-64. Hooke’s purchases are listed in Appendix II of Henderson and Poole, ‘The Library Lists of Francis Lodwick’.
15. See Bibliotheca Bissaeana ([London, 1679]); an annotated copy is located in the Cambridge University Library (Syn.5.67.2) and is available via EEBO.
16. See auct_BH_48. The other titles purchased by Hooke were: Claude Saumaise, Epistolarum liber primus. Accedunt, de laudibus et vita auctoris prolegomena, accurante A. Clementio (Leiden, 1656); and a sammelband of five quartos: Levinus Warner, Compendium historicum eorum quae Muhammedani de Christo et praecipuis aliquot religionis Christianae capitibus tradiderunt (Leiden, 1643), see auct_BH_348; Justus Asterius, Examen Comitiorum Ratisbonensium, sive disquisitio politica de nupera electione novissimi regis Romanorum (Hanover, 1637); Germanorum populi votum pro pace (1643); Petrus Gassendi, Mercurius in sole visus, et Venus invisa Parisiis anno 1631 (Paris, 1632); and Anacreontis, lyricorum poetarum festivissimi, quæ restant carmina, cum interpretatione Eilhardi Lubini (Rostock, 1583).
17. MS Sloane 1039, fols. 177-178 (auction catalogues) and fols. 143-50, 151 (shopping lists). On the evidence of book imprint dates, the latter date from the late 1680s and early 1690s. For further discussion of these lists, most of which have now been matched to specific auction catalogues, see Part II and Appendix C.
18. On this topic see also Part II, below.
19. There are two books listed in the BH by Basilius Besler: auct_BH_158 and auct_BH_159; Museum Wormianum is auct_BH_139. See memoranda entry for 8 October 1673.
20. See memoranda entries for 21, 22 and 31 March, and 3 April 1674.
21. See memoranda entries for 29 January, and 6 and 12 February 1675. Extant presentation copies of Micrographia are listed in Part II, below.
22. For Baldaeus, see auct_BH_2554. See memoranda entries for 17 March 1673 and 20 March 1689; for Hooke’s translations from Dutch see Felicity Henderson, ‘Making “The Good Old Man” Speak English: The Reception of Antoni van Leeuwenhoek’s Letters at the Royal Society, 1673-1723’ in Harold J. Cook and Sven Dupré (eds.), Translating Knowledge in the Early Modern Low Countries (Zurich and Münster, 2012), pp. 243-68 (esp. pp. 247-8).
23. London Metropolitan Archives CLC/495/MS01758. The loans recorded in the lists have sometimes also been recorded in the main body of the memoranda, but presumably the lists were a simpler way to keep track of loans, and more importantly, returns.
24. Thucydides is listed in the BH, see auct_BH_1842. Memoranda entries for 27 November 1672, 18 January 1673, 14 November 1673; LMA CLC/495/MS01758 fol. 1r; Bib. Hook. p. 39 no. 59.
25. LMA CLC/495/MS01758, fol. 132r.
26. LMA CLC/495/MS01758, unnumbered folio. There are also two translations of the Quran by Andre du Ryer listed in the BH, see auct_BH_1495 and auct_BH_2126. See also auct_BH_2570, auct_BH_2462, auct_BH_2209, and auct_BH_1142.
27. See, for example, the memoranda entry for 12 October 1672: ‘Bought of Mr Martin for Royal Society, Guericke Experimenta nova Magdeburgica 10sh, Malpighii lib. De Ovo 2sh, Langeloti Epistola 6d, Morhofi Epistola 10d.’ The minutes of the Royal Society meeting on 6 November 1672 record that ‘Mr Hook produced two Books, the one entituled Ottonis Gerici Experimenta Magdeburgica de Vacuo Spatio &c. the other of Dr Morhofij Epistola de Sypho vitreo per certum humanae vocis sonum rupto; moving, that they might be bought by the Society for their Library; which the Company consented to’ (Royal Society Archives JBO/4/264).
28. Birch, History, vol. IV, p. 39 (meeting of 27 May 1680).
29. Jean Baptiste Tavernier’s book is listed in the BH, see auct_BH_1830. Memoranda, 23 February 1678.
30. Birch, History, vol. IV, p. 110 (meeting of 7 Dec 1681).
31. Memoranda entry for 23 April 1674. Hooke had already forgotten the third title by the time he came to record it.